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Unicode (UTF-8) is the Character Set used by the Internet and LibreOffice. It supports about 138,000 characters. Unicode contains US-ASCII which is supported by the first 127 characters and ISO8859-1, the first 255 characters. So characters such as ç, Ä, ä etc exist in Unicode in exactly the same way as genuine ISO-8859-1. You will see this if you INSERT > SPECIAL CHARACTERS as the first characters in the table grouped as BASIC LATIN (0-127)(X 1-7E) and LATIN-1 (128-255) (X A0-FF).

The main character outside ISO8859-1 that you may use in Europe is the EURO sign €. So if you have an error problem, check that it is not the €.

If you have the � (Replacement Character (U+FFFD)) in the text, this is the Unicode character to replace an unknown character. You will not see this to replace an ISO-8859-1 character. The problem is elsewhere. Why is the Firebird encoded in ISO-8859-1? This 1987 technology and restricted to Europe. Linux is based on Unicode, as is the Internet and supports all the major written languages and the € (euro)

Unicode (UTF-8) is the Character Set used by the Internet and LibreOffice. It supports about 138,000 characters. Unicode contains US-ASCII which is supported by the first 127 characters and ISO8859-1, the first 255 characters. So characters such as ç, Ä, ä etc exist in Unicode in exactly the same way as genuine ISO-8859-1. You will see this if you INSERT > SPECIAL CHARACTERS as the first characters in the table grouped as BASIC LATIN (0-127)(X 1-7E) and LATIN-1 (128-255) (X A0-FF).

The main character outside ISO8859-1 that you may use in Europe is the EURO sign €. So if you have an error problem, check that it is not the €.

If you have the � (Replacement Character (U+FFFD)) in the text, this is the Unicode character to replace an unknown character. You will not see this to replace an ISO-8859-1 character. The problem is elsewhere. Why is the Firebird encoded in ISO-8859-1? This 1987 technology and restricted to Europe. Linux is based on Unicode, as is the Internet and supports all the major written languages and the € (euro)

If you are seeing the � character in LibreOffice, this is implying that you have some unknown or error characters in your ISO8859-1 data. It is this information that is being transferred and then being displayed as the � character. If the data is pure ISO8859-1 it will also be pure Unicode.