Not certain you actually mean VB (as in Visual Basic) or simply macro coding in Base - quite different.
VB in LO is limited. However for Base there is Access2Base. It is included with base and reference is here → Access2Base.
When I left M$ and Access years ago, took a look at Access2Base & chose rather to learn (to a small part at least) the API instead. For more on that see this post → To learn LibreOffice Base are there introductions or tutorials?. It includes links to many documents on macros and some utilities.
There are many examples for Base macros here and through an internet search. As for Access2Base have not seen a lot (aside from the link - many samples there) but must also state I do not look for them either.
Forgot to answer the question noted:
…is LO Base capable of, for example, producing a filtered report, printing and sending it, with just one button in a form?
It would take some effort coding macros, and depending upon what is meant by ‘sending it’, don’t see why it could not be done. There are existing pieces for this already in other posts such as:
base bypass report print preview - note comment there also
Base: Print Button - has ‘filtered’ print selection
There are many others available using the search bar.