FYI - I regularly print documents larger than what you describe without difficulties. What you describe reminds me of errors I use to get with older printers with small internal memory size and the limitation was not the size of the document but rather the memory needed per page - often a large image would exceed the ability to render the page.
I have also had documents that would refuse to print past a certain page and that has always been a corrupted file that sends characters the printer does not know what to do. Typically, this type of error ends in the printer attempting to print hundreds of pages with a one or two line error code on it.
Another debugging technique is to send the print job as a pdf file instead of the printer, then I can inspect the pdf for damaged pages which will show up as gobbledy-gook!. I also have had documents that looked fine, but after cutting and pasting sections to a new document template eventually found a page or section that caused the problem.
I have even had documents that
I hope some of these ideas help you debug your problem.