I have created a Datbase including Tables, Forms and Queries. Can I create a shortcut on a Windows 10 Desktop that iniates the Query and/or the Form directly from the Desktop
Yes and no. Using macros that will run when odb is opened, IF macro execution is enabled.
You can always use standalone forms. See this post → [Tutorial] Standalone Forms / Switchboard. Can run from desktop as they are hardly more than a Writer document (Base form).
But, as with all Libreoffice Database files, will not work IF you move your original .odb Document to another place. You must make the appropriate changes.