The ambiguity between *hyphen* and *algebraic sign* is as old as computers. Even Unicode does not set new rules for this as it would break virtually every document written up-to-date. In my knowledge, only programming language APL introduced a distinction between sign (an intrinsic property of a number) coded as 0x40 in ISO IR-68 and the negation/subtraction operator coded as 0x5F in ISO IR-68 (equivalent to U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS).

Strangely enough, I haven’t found the APL minus sign in the APL Unicode block. The closest approximation would be *macron* U+00AF, but once again this causes an ambiguity between the linguistic use of macron and the sign of a number.

Consequently we must live with this ambiguity. If we want to be immune against spurious line wrapping, we can use U+2212 MINUS SIGN as suggested by @RGB-es since this is the intended semantics or add a ZERO WIDTH JOINER U+200D between hyphen and number but not sure if it prevents line break.

Anyway, not very user-friendly