Add images via links (`![]()` MD equivalent in LO)?

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You found the “(![]() MD equivalent in LO)”, however I do not know of a tool that automatically will convert graphics referred to in a markdown document to linked graphics in the LO document. At best, the image will be embedded if it is a graphic supported by LO (i.e., no PDF).

What does that mean?

And while in both former formats you can (or acutally must) use a link to add an image (or table…), I wondered if something like this is possible in LO.

Yes, you found it yourself. As you said:

What I found is that there you can (manually) insert file links and/or file links to images which are not included in the document itself but externally.

This is the equivalent of how you “link in” graphics in markdown. Your question thus is not “is something like this possible in LO” (the answer is “Yes”), but rather: is there an automated markdown conversion tool that allows to link figures rather than embedding.

You did not give any clue about how you currently attempt the conversion. I presume pandoc. It embeds graphics rather than linking them. I don’t know whether a command line option allows to change that aspect of the conversion.